MENU

The Rabies Prevention and Control Program

Background

Rabies is a zoonotic disease that causes 70,000 deaths every year worldwide with 56% of the cases occurring in Asia. In the Philippines, there are around 200 human deaths every year mostly among children below 15 years of age and those who are poor. Even though such deaths are preventable, there is no treatment or cure for rabies once the clinical manifestations of rabies set in. The high cost of anti-rabies vaccine and immunoglobulin, expenditure for medical consultations and the loss of income are an additional burden to a regular Filipino family confronted with a potential rabies exposure. In addition, victims of potentially rabid bites suffer anxiety resulting from the uncertainty on the consequence of a rabies exposure.  To address the problem of rabies in the country, the Philippines mandated the implementation of Republic Act (R.A) No. 9482 or the “Anti-Rabies Act of 2007”, which provides for the “control and elimination of human and animal rabies, prescribing penalties for violation thereof and appropriating funds therefore”. This was signed into law on the 25th of May 2007 and created the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program (NRPCP) which is a multi-agency effort in controlling and eliminating rabies in the country.

Vision

Rabies Free Philippines by 2030

Goal

To end human deaths from dog-mediated rabies by 2027

Legal Mandates of the NRPCP

1. Anti-Rabies Act of 2007 (Republic Act 9482) : An Act Providing for the Control and Elimination of Human and Animal Rabies, Prescribing penalties for Violation Thereof and Appropriating Funds Thereof.

2. Batas Pambansa Bilang 97: An Act Providing for the Compulsory Immunization of Livestock, Poultry and other Animals against Dangerous Communicable Diseases. The Act required the Secretary of Agriculture to make compulsory the vaccination of susceptible animals and poultry should there be a threat or existence of a highly communicable animal or avian disease in a certain locality.

3. Executive Order No. 84: Declaring March as the Rabies Awareness Month, Rationalizing the Control Measures for the Prevention and Eradication of Rabies and Appropriating Funds.

4. Memorandum of Agreement on Interagency Implementation of the NRPCP: Signed in May 1991 by the Secretaries of Agriculture (DA), Health (DOH), Local Government (DILG) and Education, Culture and Sports, now, Department of Education

Program Components

NRPCP is a multi-agency effort to control and eliminate rabies in the country lead by the Department of Agriculture (DA) and Department of Health (DOH), Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG), Department of Education (DepEd) in coordination with other Government Organizations (GOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and People's Organizations (POs).

The following components of the program as mandated by RA 9482 (Anti-Rabies Act of 2007) should be implemented at all levels.

 

  1. Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) and Pre-Exposure (PrEP)
  • Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) -anti-rabies prophylaxis administered after an exposure (such as bite, scratch, lick, etc.) from potentially rabid animals.
  • Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) –vaccination given to individuals who are at high risk of getting rabies.
  1. Health Promotion

The following are the significant activities in the conduct of information and education campaign on the prevention and control of rabies:

  • Celebration of Rabies Awareness Month under Executive Order No. 84, March is Rabies Awareness Month
  • Celebration of World Rabies Day - September 28 has been declared as World Rabies Day.
  • Development of IEC Materials -All agencies involved in the implementation of the program are encouraged to conceptualize, produce/reproduce and distribute IEC materials and collaterals.
  • Massive Health Information Campaign using tri-media
  • Integration of Rabies Program into the School Curriculum - The integration of the program into the curriculum is a collaborative effort of DOH and DepEd to educate school children who are the most vulnerable to animal bites.
  1. Dog Vaccination

This is the most effective measure to control canine rabies. The Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Animal Industry takes the lead in mass dog vaccination campaigns and provision of animal rabies vaccine.

 

  1. Dog Population Management

This includes stray dog management through impounding, field control and disposal, surgical and non-surgical sterilization and habitat control.

 

  1. Central Database System

The Philippine Animal Health Information System (PhilAHIS) was established to provide data on dog registration, vaccination and reports of canine rabies maintained by the Department of Agriculture. National Rabies Information System (NaRIS), an internet-based information system that allows reporting health facilities to automate bite patient records and generate report, and at the same time provide accurate and real time data to program managers at the national, regional and provincial levels leading to more efficient and effective delivery of health services on the local and national scale. The NaRIS shall address issues on under and late reporting of rabies and rabies exposures, ineffective feedback mechanism on the status of allocated logistics, inadequate avenue to inform the general public on the prevention and control of rabies as well as what services are being provided by the program and where these services can be availed of. Once implemented, the NaRIS shall hopefully achieve the following: (1) ensure availability of timely and accurate data on rabies and rabies exposures; (2) improve access to health information on rabies and its preventions; (3) effectively disseminate information on where Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) and rabies diagnostic services are available; (4) make available information on the status of program logistics for program managers/coordinators; and (5) effectively disseminate information on the efforts of the government to control and eliminate rabies.

 

  1. Responsible Pet Ownership

The program adopts the strategy of promoting Responsible Pet Ownership to prevent spread of rabies. The public is advised to bring their pet dogs for anti-rabies vaccination when they reach 3 months of age and yearly thereafter, provide proper nutrition, exercise and shelter to their pet dogs and not to allow their pet dogs to roam around to prevent contact with infected animals.

 

The Rabies Prevention and Control Committee

Figure 1

 

R.A. 9482 also mandated the establishment of a National Rabies Prevention and Control Committee chaired by the Bureau of Animal Industry of the Department of Agriculture, co-chaired by the Disease Prevention and Control Bureau of the Department of Health, and implemented by a multi-agency/ multi-sectoral committee at all levels. It recommended the composition of the rabies committee at different levels: national, regional, provincial, city, municipality and barangay levels with similar structure as shown in Figure 1.

 

Recommended Composition of the Rabies Committee in each level

             National        Region        Province         City       Municipality     Barangay  
Chair Bureau of Animal Industry – Department of Agriculture (DA) Regional Director – Department of Agriculture Governor/ Provincial Veterinarian Mayor/ City Veterinarian Mayor/ Municipal Agriculturist Barangay Captain
Vice-Chair Disease Prevention and Control Bureau – Department of Health (DOH) Regional Director – Department of Health Provincial Health Officer City Health Officer Municipal Health Officer Physician/PHN/ RHM
Members

Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)

Department of Education (DepEd)

Other Members:

Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)

Non-Government Organizations

Academe

Local Government Units

Provincial, City and Municipal Veterinarians League of the Philippines (PCMVLP)

Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)

Department of Education (DepEd)

Philippine National Police

Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)

Department of Education (DepEd)

PHTL

Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)

Department of Education (DepEd)

DOH Rep

Phil National Police (PNP)

NGOs

Sanitary Inspector (SI)

Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)

Department of Education (DepEd)

DOH Rep

Phil National Police (PNP)

NGOs

Sanitary Inspector (SI)

Council of Health

Lupon Tagapamayapa

Barangay Health Workers (BHWs)

Barangay Tanod

NGOs

Key Purok Leaders

                         

 

Program Status and Statistics

 

Key Strategies for Rabies Elimination

Figure 2

 

 

Animal Rabies Laboratory Confirmed Cases, 2005 to 2019

Figure 3

 

Animal species that tested positive for rabies viral antigen from 2015 to 2019

SPECIES 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Canine 690 761 962 1190 1143
Feline 8 17 29 27 19
Caprine 2 0 2 0 0
Porcine 1 1 2 0 2
Bovine 0 0 1 5 6
Bubaline 1 0 1 3 1
Equine 0 0 0 1 0
Wildlife (primates, rodent family) 0 0 1 0 0
Unknown 0 0 0 1 1

Estimated dog population, 2015 to 2019

Region 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
I 591,241 613,371 494,669 521,541 512,170
II 441,407 451,553 443,522 450,507 511,053
III 811,397 913,872 996,655 1,042,994 1,113,954
IV-A 1,387,270 1,401,060 1,411,341 1,399,890 1,290,106
IV-B 292,735 312,854 334,702 302,469 302,469
V 427,556 433,961 443,939 447,318 464,083
VI 775,538 778,076 791,119 829,897 846,344
VII 562,030 561,711 561,429 596,479 609,448
VIII 410,132 324,235 328,855 339,223 353,149
IX 213,255 228,867 202,258 238,585 250,031
X 369,929 353,559 411,849 431,188 396,545
XI 455,127 447,405 474,050 489,114 541,187
XII 391,082 416,994 464,878 462,867 422,039
CARAGA 149,831 163,100 146,387 156,403 220,825
CAR 130,024 151,658 191,053 227,091 172,074
NCR 1,026,657 1,030,102 985,345 947,302 715,404
BARMM 26,187 28,805 63,118 44,683 42,472
Total 8,461,398 8,611,183 8,745,169 8,927,551 8,763,353

 

Mass dog vaccination coverage for the past 5 years

Region 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
I 40.34% 35.75% 51.45% 43.22% 39.14%
II 51.03% 51.30% 47.04% 50.27% 19.68%
III 49.90% 52.39% 65.18% 56.54% 35.82%
IVA 38.85% 40.76% 43.99% 40.67% 42.58%
IVB 25.42% 27.77% 32.82% 38.63% 58.81%
V 70.61% 63.29% 67.10% 40.17% 20.61%
VI 48.43% 61.62% 67.78% 69.46% 31.44%
VII 76.27% 70.32% 52.27% 74.09% 47.20%
VIII 55.56% 59.10% 60.86% 57.30% 20.65%
IX 37.46% 27.40% 43.12% 43.38% 23.89%
X 44.69% 48.60% 64.00% 65.84% 42.62%
XI 31.74% 53.75% 76.63% 69.77% 46.04%
XII 42.34% 55.22% 60.05% 57.80% 54.24%
CARAGA 52.61% 57.07% 50.30% 49.33% 45.28%
CAR 66.15% 62.37% 66.32% 70.42% 78.95%
ARMM 20.09% 12.95% 35.38% 70.00% 21.96%
NCR 32.29% 35.03% 51.08% 60.21% 51.84%
TOTAL (%) 45.47% 47.99% 55.74% 53.30% 41.23%
TOTAL Vaccinated (heads) 3,847,447 4,132,594 4,874,549 4,758,226 3,613,133

 

Declared Rabies free zones and areas in the Philippines, 2008-2019.

Year Rabies-free Areas Rabies-free zones
2008   Siquijor
2010 Apo Island, Negros Oriental Batanes
2011 Municipality of Poro, Camotes Island  
  Municipality of Tudela, Camotes Island  
  Municipality of San Francisco, Camotes Island  
  Municipality of Pilar, Camotes Island  
  Malapascua Island, Daanbantayan, Cebu  
2012 Island Municipality of Limasawa Province of Biliran
    Province of Camiguin
    Province of Marinduque
2013 Boracay island, Malay, Aklan (Province of Guimaras) – for reapplication
  Municipality of Coron, Palawan  
  Municipality of Culion, Palawan  
  Municipality of Busuanga, Palawan  
  Olympia Island, Bais City, Negros Oriental  
2014 Municipality of Alabat, Quezon (Alquerez Island)  
  Municipality of Quezon, Quezon (Alquerez Island)  
  Municipality of Perez, Quezon (Alquerez Island)  
  Municipality of Linapacan, Palawan  
  Municipality of Kalayaan, Palawan  
  Municipality of Cuyo, Palawan  
  Municipality of Cagayancillo, Palawan  
Municipality of Magsaysay, Palawan  
Municipality of Araceli, Palawan  
Bucas Grande Island, Socorro, Surigao Del Norte  
2015 Municipality of Tingloy, Batangas Province of Dinagat Islands
  Municipality of Agutaya, Palawan  
  Municipality of Balabac, Palawan  
2016 Island of Pan de Acuzar, Concepcion, Iloilo  
2017 Municipality of Monreal, Ticao Island, Masbate  
  Municipality of San Jacinto, Ticao Island, Masbate  
  Municipality of Batuan, Ticao Island, Masbate  
  Municipality of San Fernando, Ticao Island, Masbate  
  Municipality of Pres. Carlos P. Garcia, Bohol  
2018 Municipality of Capul, Northern Samar Province of Catanduanes
  Municipality of San Antonio, Northern Samar  
  Municipality of Patnanungan, Quezon  
  Municipality of Jomalig, Quezon  
  Sitio Bago-Ise, Brgy. Taloto-an, Concepcion, Iloilo  
  Sombrero Island, Brgy. Tambaliza, Concepcion, Iloilo  
  Brgy. Malangabang, Concepcion, Iloilo  
  Brgy. Salvacion, Concepcion, Iloilo  
  Sitio Baliguian, Brgy. Malangabang, Concepcion, Iloilo  
2019   Province of Romblon

Video of Secretary of Agriculture, William Dar, on his message regarding the rabies prevention and control program

Sec Dar

DA-BAI Rabies team contact information

Animal Health and Welfare Division, Bureau of Animal Industry, Tel no.: (02) 8528 2240 local 1500

Email address: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Website: https://ahwd.bai.gov.ph/

Resources

Anti-rabies act and other issuances

Adoption of the NRPCP: Manual of Procedures (MOP) 2019

Adoption of the NRPCP: Strategic Plan 2020 to 2025

Local Government Code RA 7160

IRR of the Local Government Code of 1991

Read 2968 times Last modified on Wednesday, 12 May 2021 17:20